We own 13 hectares of vineyard all standing in grass, in the heart of the Valtellina Superiore DOCG area, dotted around Sassella, Grumello and Inferno.

All processes are entirely by hand, and indeed the morphology of our vineyards makes it impossible to use tractors. The frequency of plant protection treatments depends on the rains, but also these indispensable operations are carried out manually. Vines are very sensitive to the weather and winemakers know how challenging it can be to look after them.

It is by no means unusual to spend 1,500 hours on cultivating a single hectare (about two and a half acres) of vineyard. We fight powdery mildew and peronospera but without making it a war of extermination: sometimes we live with it, using integrated management with great care in order to reduce any environmental impact. Despite this, there are some years when the harvest, if not entirely lost, produces wines that never reach the market, such as the terrible 2008 vintage.